Patents and innovations during WWI – Battlefront innovations

In his report on the activities of the Australian Imperial Force (AIF) Research Section, inventor William H G Geake noted that it was not until 1916 that World War I (WWI) was deemed an ‘Engineer’s war’.

The industrialised warfare witnessed on the battlefront created a sense that the war could be won through innovation. Faced with the horror stories of trench warfare and devastating losses such as the Gallipoli campaign, some Australians channelled their energies toward creating innovative solutions to aid the war effort.1

Often their creative endeavours were not pursued because of legislation, and many other inventions were never registered with the Patent Office.Many of these developments were makeshift battlefront innovations, whilst some of them came about back home in Australia.

This creative ingenuity witnessed on the battlefront has become part of what has been labelled the ‘Anzac spirit’, the characterisation of the men of the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps as inherently resourceful and innovative.2 This idea has also been held up as an illustration of an Australian ‘national character’, and this belief in the inventiveness of Australians remains entrenched to this day, 100 years after the war.

Caption: Australian Engineers making small stoves for the coming winter, 1917-18. Mitchell Library, State Library of NSW, PXB 215/126

‘Aussie’ innovation

The English novelist H G Wells recognised this new ‘modern war’ as a ‘struggle of gear and invention’.3 Even though Australia relied heavily on Britain’s technological innovation in the military spherethere were calls for Australians to innovate and contribute to the war effort. One Australian newspaper noted: ‘The Germans mobilise their scientists and physicists for military purposes as they mobilised their whole nation. The war is more and more becoming a matter of science’.4 Victorian Governor Arthur Stanley also chimed in, praising the work of the University of Melbourne’s Professor William Osborne, who later played a role in developing a respirator for protection against poisonous gas. Stanley spoke of the importance of ‘mobilising the nation’s brains’ as a crucial resource for the war effort.5

Two months later, Osborne emphasised the role of science in the war effort and proposed the establishment of a national research institute to Prime Minister William M Hughes which formed the foundations for CSIRO. 6

Most inventions submitted did not make it to Britain’s War Office, and those that did generally weren’t developed or used. This seemed to cause dismay for the Australian press. One news article dramatically stated, despite their ‘creative genius’, inventors ‘go unrewarded to a pauper’s grave’.7 Another stated ‘our inventors, creators, scientists, engineers, chemists, and discoverers are immobilised, all these months unwanted and unheard’.8 One more stated Australians had a natural ‘spirit of initiative’ and that inventions produced during the war ‘were more numerous in proportion to Australia’s population than those of any other nation’, but had received little credit. 9

Under the War Precautions Act 1914, which included the War Precautions (Patents) Regulations 1916, every application was reviewed by a Patents Inquiry Board, which included members appointed by the Minister for Defence.

The board could decline an application if it was deemed ‘detrimental to the public safety or the defence of the Commonwealth or might otherwise assist the enemy or endanger the successful prosecution of the war’.10

Caption: Lance de Mole, October 1918. Australian War Memorial, P10427.021.

As a result of these hurdles, some Australians offered their inventions to the Department of Defence with some falling by the wayside.

A well known example of a successful innovation was Private Lance de Mole’s early designs for a military tank. On 16 August 1912, Melbourne’s Thomas Frederick Caldwell submitted a patent application for ‘An improved quick-firing machine gun’.11 The mechanical engineer declared his invention was ‘exceedingly light, simple and durable in construction and perfectly easy to operate’. Trials of the gun took place in February 1914, with 6 000 live cartridges and 25 000 blanks fired at an estimated 1 000 shots per minute.12 When both Australian and British authorities failed to support the invention, the gun was allegedly almost sold to a German armament firm in July 1914 before the declaration of war halted negotiations.13 In 1915, the gun was reportedly sold to a London firm for £55 000 in cash with a £4 per gun royalty on all guns manufactured in Britain and 10 per cent of foreign rights and licences. 14

Caption: Patent drawings for Caldwell’s quick-firing machine gun, no. 6091/12, 16 August 1912. AusPat, IP Australia.

One female inventor Myra Juliet Taylor (née Welsh) lived in Sydney and registered many patents during her lifetime, with many of her inventions forming in her dreams.15 In June 1915, as a widow with a young family and a reportedly ‘strong patriotic’ impulse, Taylor invented a barricade designed to repel enemy rifle and machine-gun fire and reduce the impact of shells.16 The ‘defence fence’ was ‘under the consideration of the Defence Department’ and in the meantime, her ‘surgical belt and binder for use in military hospitals’ had allegedly been accepted.17 However, a report in May 1916 noted that ‘no practical use has been made’ of the fence, asserting that despite Taylor’s prolific career the reason for the rejection ‘appears to be that the inventor is a woman’. 18

Even though some inventions were never patented, there are some inventions that were eventually patented, though not always used in the trenches.

What about the Navy?

Described as having a ‘genius for invention’, John Saumarez Dumaresq was born in Sydney and captured the attention of the British Admiralty years before the war started.19 Between 1902 to 1904, he developed a device to improve gun accuracy - a trigonometric slide-rule calculator which became known as the ‘Dumaresq’. It consisted of a base plate with a circular disc resting and pivoting centrally to it.

Caption: John Saumarez Dumaresq, Australian War Memorial, 305332.

A letter from the British Admiralty on 26 July 1904stated that Dumaresq was free to patent his invention but once it was registered, it was to be ‘absolutely assigned to the Secretary of State for War’.20 On 15 August 1904 Dumaresq registered an English patent for his invention, stating its purpose:

…is mainly to provide an instrument for giving rapidly the required rate of change of range and the deflection necessary for keeping the line of sight of a gun or battery of guns at such an angle both in a vertical and horizontal plane to the axis of the gun as to cause the projectiles to continuously fall at or near the object aimed at….21

Caption: The Dumaresq, Mark IV, Naval Heritage Collection.

According to Royal Australian Navy historian, David Stevens, when the Dumaresq was ‘set with the courses of the firing ship and the target ship, and the target’s bearing’ it ‘indicated both the rate of change of range and deflection’.22 There were many versions of the Dumaresq, however, each one was developed from the initial model and formed a key gunnery instrument in Australia’s new ‘Grand Fleet’23 in 1914. Though Dumaresq held a patent on the device, he wanted no profit from its production and was paid a total of £1500 as a one-off payment from the Admiralty.24

Caption: The Dumaresq, Mark IV, Naval Heritage Collection.

Message in a…Rocket?

After enlisting in the AIF as an engineer William H G Geake invented a bomb throwing device with civilian Alfred Salenger.25 It came to the attention of the Ministry for Munitions in London and in 1917, Geake was ‘loaned’ to the British Inventions Board and then appointed head of the AIF Research Section, which had been established in November 1916.26

Caption: Geake with one of the inventions, 16 January 1918, Sydney Mail, p. 10. Trove, National Library of Australia.

The AIF Research Section proved their worth and within three months the section was allocated their own experimental grounds in Esher in Surrey, England.27 Geake wrote of ‘the resourcefulness and instinctive ingenuity of the Australian soldier’ as he and his team developed (to name a few) the: ‘Message Carrying Rocket’, ‘Improved Machine Gun Belt’, ‘Impact Hand Grenade’, ‘Smooth Bore Howitzer’, ‘Floating Flare Shell For Naval Use’, ‘Non-Inflammable Petrol Tank’, ‘Rod Gun’, ‘Magazine for 303 Rifle’ and ‘Stream Lined Stoke Shell’.28

Caption: Message Rocket invented by Lieutenant W H G Geake, AIF Research Section c 1917, Australian War Memorial, RELAWM04381]

Geake’s most successful invention, the Message Carrying Rocket, was made of steel with a range of up to two kilometres.29 It included a propellant, whistle at the tip and a two-piece tube which carried the smoke and flare composition as well as a receptacle for carrying messages.30 One Australian newspaper described it as the ultimate example of ‘Digger brain and originality’, Geake continued his work with the AIF Research Section and his rocket was in use on the Western Front until the end of the war.31

The Melbourne University Respirator

At 5pm on 22 April 1915, German forces released thick green-yellow clouds of deadly chlorine at the Second Battle of Ypres in Belgium. It was the first large scale use of poison gas on the Western Front and caused alarm across the other side of the world as Australian newspapers reported on the ‘terrible carnage’ and ‘dastardly tactics’ of the Germans.32

Scientists at the University of Melbourne responded and developed a form of protection for this new type of warfare.

Professors David Masson, William Osborne and Thomas Laby had a makeshift trench dug in the university grounds and filled with poisonous gas as they tested their prototype.33 On 21 June 1915 they submitted their report to the Department of Defence recommending the use of their device which was made up of of a metal canister filter, chemical purifier, air tubes, mouthpiece for inhalation, nose clips and eye goggles. 34

Caption: Unidentified man wearing Melbourne University Respirator c 1917, Australian War Memorial, J06881.

Even though the British War Office communicated that 300 000 masks of their own were being sent to the front, Governor-General Ronald Crauford Munro Ferguson ordered 10 000 Melbourne University Respirators be manufactured.35

In the meantime, a report from the War Office stated that despite its ‘excellent make and finish’ the respirator had several deficiencies and would not be required.36 In the end, it’s not clear what extent the respirator was adopted in the field as the 10 000 masks made their way to France in July 1916.37 Its general failure has been attributed to a mixture of bureaucracy, the desire for a standardised military kit and Australia’s isolated position from the battlefront.38
Despite this, it is possible elements of their invention were incorporated in the development of the British box respirator.39 After the war, the respirator was used as a political tool to demonstrate the value of scientific research to defence.40

‘The Transporter’

In 1915 Alexander Worsfold, a manufacturer from the Sydney suburb of Arncliffe, spoke of his frustration to a reporter from The Sydney Morning Herald (SMH). He claimed he had ‘been trying for months to interest the Defence Department in my inventions…If I cannot make those things, I can go, and with my son, fill a dug-out, or perhaps at the seat of war there may be more opportunity for assisting my country with my technical knowledge’.41

Despite a testimonial from one of Australia’s great inventors, aeronautical pioneer Lawrence Hargrave, Worsfold’s new ambulance stretcher was not, as confirmed by the SMH reporter’s closing remark above, receiving the attention it deserved.42
One wonders whether the Germans would let Alexander Worsfold and his clever son go from the factory to “fill a dug-out”.43

Worsfold’s stretcher eventually became the only Australian invention developed from the home front that was adopted on the battlefront.44

Caption: Alexander Worsfold's stretcher, Australian War Memorial, C04780]

‘The Transporter’, as it became known, was designed to reduce the ‘difficulties of transport of provisions, munitions, comforts, etc., from the field base to the trench, and of wounded soldiers from the trench to the field hospital.’45

It was made of mountain ash, included a pair of bicycle wheels, and resembled a snow sledge - a remnant of Worsfold’s earlier design for sledges used by explorer Douglas Mawson’s in the Australasian Antarctic Expedition (1911-1914).46 Mawson reportedly sympathised with a disappointed Worsfold writing, ‘In your particular line I judge that you have no peers in Australia, and feel certain that there are many openings for your genius in producing paraphernalia in connection with war requirements’.47

After the first report of Worsfold’s invention appeared in the SMH, a follow-up article that was published a month later showed that there had been ‘interesting developments’ in his story.48 Worsfold had been working at Victoria Barracks army base in Paddington day and night, testing and improving his ‘life-saving device’.49 His contraption had been reduced in weight, was capable of carrying a quarter of a ton and had been inspected by representatives from the Department of Defence.50 Though it was initially rejected, Worsfold’s Transporter was in use in France by 1917.51

Caption: 9th Australian Field Ambulance, 1916, Worsfold appears in the second row third from the right, Australian War Memorial, P01718.001

Worsfold joined the AIF on 10 August 1915 as a Private in the 9th Field Ambulance and embarked on HMAT Argyllshire in Sydney on 11 May 1916.52 He contracted the flu and was admitted to hospital in December 1916 and by June 1918 he had been transferred to the AIF Research Section Headquarters in London, during which time he invented a sound-ranging apparatus and was then promoted to 2nd Lieutenant in April 1919.53

He was sent home to Australia on 18 October 1919. During his career, Worsfold registered numerous patents, such as: ‘Improved movable seat appliances for dog-carts, gigs and such like vehicles’ (1905), ‘Improved hollow concrete block to be used in the construction of walls and other structures’ (1921), ‘Improved type of autoclave for soap making, steam distillation and analogous purposes’ (1922)54 and ‘Improved system of construction for wireless telegraphic masts’ (1922).

In the end, even though most inventions and innovations did not bring about registered patents, they stand as a testament to the efforts and creativity of these Australians.

Despite the missed opportunities and difficult times, Australians applied their creativity in their own distinctive ways.

Resourceful ingenuity was not just a virtue particular to the Aussie ‘digger’, and if anything was going to win the war it was not just the ‘Anzac spirit’ at the battlefront, it was also the brilliant minds and steadfast determination of those at home.55

Discover more about IP rights during WWI

Footnotes

  1. W H G Geake, ‘Activites of the AIF Research Section', Sabretache: the journal of the Military Collectors Society of Australia, 1978, volume 19, number 2, p. 118.
  2. Much has been written about this topic (and more critically the ‘Anzac myth’). See Australian War Memorial for a brief summary, accessed 29 March 2015 <https://www.awm.gov.au/encyclopedia/anzac/spirit/>, see also State Library of NSW’s reading list, accessed 29 March 2015 <http://ww1.sl.nsw.gov.au/research/reading-list>.
  3. ‘What Modern War Is’, 12 June 1915, The Argus, p. 17 <http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article1523792>.
  4. ‘New Ideas for the War’, 24 September 1915, The Grenfell Record and Lachlan District Advertiser, p. 6 <http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article117568390>.
  5. ‘Science and war’, 16 October 1915, The Argus, p. 20 <http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article1571400>. See also Tim Sherratt, ’Anzac Brains - Prologue’, Chapter 4 in Atomic Wonderland: Science and Progress in Twentieth Century Australia, 2003 (PhD), Australian National University <http://atomicwonderland.org/anzac-brains-prologue/>.
  6. ‘Federal Research’, 23 December 1915, The Argus, p. 10 <http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article1587479>.
  7. ‘The Reward of Brains’, 15 August 1915, Direct Action, p. 2 <http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article111349594>.
  8. ‘Brains and Bayonets’, 9 August 1915, The Register, p. 6 <http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article59418339>.
  9. ‘Our Inventors’, 14 February 1922, The Sydney Morning Herald, p. 8 <http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article15989412>.
  10. War Precautions (Patents) Regulations1916, 3 (5), 12 July 1916, ComLaw, accessed 20 March 2015 < http://www.comlaw.gov.au/Details/C1916L00140>.
  11. Application numbers 6091/12, 16 August 1912, accessible via AusPat <www.ipaustralia.gov.au/auspat/>.
  12. ‘Australian Machine Gun’, 4 February 1914, The Argus, p. 7 <http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article7288988>.
  13. ‘Australian Machine Gun’, 14 November 1914, Leader, p. 5 <http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article117883946>.
  14. ‘Caldwell Machine Gun Co.’, 20 March 1915, The Argus, p. 21 <http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article1504347>. Also ‘Caldwell Machine Gun’, 27 March 1915, Poverty Bay Herald, p. 4.
  15. One newspaper claimed she registered 26 patents, ’For chest troubles’, 23 December 1928, Sunday Times, p. 19 <http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article122803926>. Another newspaper claimed it was 24, ‘Australia’s Woman Inventor’, 20 April 1916, Woman Voter, p. 3 <http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article171814275>. Sixteen of Myra Juliet Farrell/Taylor’s patents are accessible via AusPat <www.ipaustralia.gov.au/auspat/>, for example application numbers 2575/05, 133/11, 16797/15 and 27026/30. See also ‘The talk of the town’, 20 May 1916, The Mirror of Australia, p. 7 <http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article104642964>.
  16. ‘Woman Inventor’, 25 August 1915, The Scrutineer and Berrima District Press, p. 4 <http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article127649528> ; ‘Woman Inventor’, 26 August 1915, Guyra Argus, p. 4 <http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article173835572> ; ‘Woman Inventor’, 28 August 1915, Western Age, p. 4 <http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article136727841>
  17. ‘Many Inventions’, 29 September 1915, Warwick Examiner and Times, p. 3 <http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article82795188>
  18. ‘The talk of the town’, 20 May 1916, The Mirror of Australia, p. 7 <http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article104642964>
  19. David Stevens, In All Respects Ready: Australia’s Navy in World War One, (South Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 2014), p. 250.
  20. Dumaresq file, Sea Power Centre - Australia, Canberra.
  21. Number GB190417719A, Espacenet®, accessed 30 March 2015 <http://worldwide.espacenet.com/>.
  22. David Stevens, In All Respects Ready: Australia’s Navy in World War One, (South Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 2014), p. 250.
  23. David Stevens, In All Respects Ready: Australia’s Navy in World War One, (South Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 2014), p. 250. See also Tony Lovell, ’Dumaresq’, The Dreadnought Project, 21 March 2014, accessed 30 March 2015 <http://dreadnoughtproject.org/tfs/index.php/Dumaresq>.
  24. David Stevens, In All Respects Ready: Australia’s Navy in World War One, (South Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 2014), p. 250.
  25. Peter Burness, 'Geake, William Henry Gregory (1880–1944)', Australian Dictionary of Biography, National Centre of Biography, Australian National University, 1981, accessed 29 March 2015 <http://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/geake-william-henry-gregory-6293/text10851>.
  26. W H G Geake, ‘Activites of the AIF Research Section', Sabretache: the journal of the Military Collectors Society of Australia, 1978, volume 19, number 2, p. 118.
  27. W H G Geake, ‘Activites of the AIF Research Section', Sabretache: the journal of the Military Collectors Society of Australia, 1978, volume 19, number 2, p. 119.
  28. W H G Geake, ‘Activites of the AIF Research Section', Sabretache: the journal of the Military Collectors Society of Australia, 1978, volume 19, number 2, p. 119-22.
  29. W H G Geake, ‘Activites of the AIF Research Section', Sabretache: the journal of the Military Collectors Society of Australia, 1978, volume 19, number 2, p. 122. Peter Burness, 'Geake, William Henry Gregory (1880–1944)', Australian Dictionary of Biography, National Centre of Biography, Australian National University, 1981, accessed 29 March 2015 <http://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/geake-william-henry-gregory-6293/text10851>. See also Message Rocket at Australian War Memorial, accessed 29 March 2015 <https://www.awm.gov.au/collection/RELAWM04381/>.
  30. Message Rocket at Australian War Memorial, accessed 29 March 2015 <https://www.awm.gov.au/collection/RELAWM04381/>.
  31. ‘Inventors Active’, 26 June 1919, The Newcastle Sun, p. 5 <http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article162561221>.
  32. ‘Flanders Battles’, 27 April 1915, The Ballarat Star, p. 1 <http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article161070411>.
  33. Ernest Scott, Chapter VII ‘The Equipment of Armies’ in Volume XI, C E W Bean ed., Official History of Australia in the War of 1914-1918, 7th edition, 1941, p. 253 and Katrina Dean, ‘Demonstrating the Melbourne University Respirator’, Australian Journal of Politics & History, September 2007, Volume 53, Issue 3, p. 398.
  34. Ernest Scott, Chapter VII ‘The Equipment of Armies’ in Volume XI, C E W Bean ed., Official History of Australia in the War of 1914-1918, 7th edition, 1941, p. 252.
  35. Katrina Dean, ‘Demonstrating the Melbourne University Respirator’, Australian Journal of Politics & History, September 2007, Volume 53, Issue 3, p. 399.
  36. Katrina Dean, ‘Demonstrating the Melbourne University Respirator’, Australian Journal of Politics & History, September 2007, Volume 53, Issue 3, p. 400.
  37. Katrina Dean, ‘Demonstrating the Melbourne University Respirator’, Australian Journal of Politics & History, September 2007, Volume 53, Issue 3, p. 401.
  38. Arthur G Butler, Chapter I ‘Chemical Warfare’ in Volume III, C E W Bean ed., Official History of Australia in the War of 1914-1918, 1st edition, 1943, p. 27, Katrina Dean, ‘Demonstrating the Melbourne University Respirator’, Australian Journal of Politics & History, September 2007, Volume 53, Issue 3, p. 402 and Eric Endacott, ‘Inventing to Win the War. Amateur Inventors and the Australian Home Front, 1914-1918’, Honours thesis, Deakin University 2012, p. 26.
  39. Eric Endacott, ‘Science and Technology (Australia)’, 8 October 2014, 1914-1918-online. International Encyclopedia of the First World War, Ute Daniel, Peter Gatrell, Oliver Janz, Heather Jones, Jennifer Keene, Alan Kramer and Bill Nasson, eds., Freie Universität Berlin <http://dx.doi.org/10.15463/ie1418.10369>.
  40. Katrina Dean, ‘Demonstrating the Melbourne University Respirator’, Australian Journal of Politics & History, September 2007, Volume 53, Issue 3, p. 392.
  41. ‘Who is Worsfold?’, 4 September 1915, The Sydney Morning Herald, p. 7 <http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article15611502>.
  42. ‘Who is Worsfold?’, 4 September 1915, The Sydney Morning Herald, p. 7 <http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article15611502>.
  43. ‘Who is Worsfold?’, 4 September 1915, The Sydney Morning Herald, p. 7 <http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article15611502>.
  44. Eric Endacott, ‘Inventing to Win the War. Amateur Inventors and the Australian Home Front, 1914-1918’, Honours thesis, Deakin University 2012, p. 26 and p. 41.
  45. ‘Who is Worsfold?’, 4 September 1915, The Sydney Morning Herald, p. 7 <http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article15611502>.
  46. ‘Who is Worsfold?’, 4 September 1915, The Sydney Morning Herald, p. 7 <http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article15611502> and Margaret Simpson, ‘Centenary of Mawson’s 1911 Antarctic Expedition - Part 2 - The riddle of the sledges’, 7 December 2011, Powerhouse Museum blog <http://www.powerhousemuseum.com/insidethecollection/2011/12/centenary-of-mawsons-1911-antarctic-expedition-part-2-the-riddle-of-the-sledges/>.
  47. ‘Who is Worsfold?’, 4 September 1915, The Sydney Morning Herald, p. 7 <http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article15611502>.
  48. ‘Who is Worsfold?’, 2 October 1915, The Sydney Morning Herald, p. 7 <http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article28108237>.
  49. ‘Who is Worsfold?’, 2 October 1915, The Sydney Morning Herald, p. 7 <http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article28108237>.
  50. ‘Who is Worsfold?’, 2 October 1915, The Sydney Morning Herald, p. 7 <http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article28108237>.
  51. Eric Endacott, ‘Inventing to Win the War. Amateur Inventors and the Australian Home Front, 1914-1918’, Honours thesis, Deakin University 2012, p. 36.
  52. Service no. 12096. National Archives of Australia: B2455, WORSFOLD A.
  53. Service no. 12096. National Archives of Australia: B2455, WORSFOLD A. See also Ernest Scott, Chapter VII ‘The Equipment of Armies’ in Volume XI, C E W Bean ed., Official History of Australia in the War of 1914-1918, 7th edition, 1941, p. 251 and ‘Alexander Worsfold’, The AIF Project, accessed 23 March 2015 <https://www.aif.adfa.edu.au/showPerson?pid=332424>.
  54. Application numbers 4323/05, 356/21, 10451/22 and 10499/22 respectively. Patents accessible via AusPat <www.ipaustralia.gov.au/auspat/>.
  55. Roy MacLeod, ‘From ‘Arsenal’ to ‘Munitions Supply’: Revisiting the Experience of the First World War’ in Frank Cain ed, Arming the Nation: A History of defence science and technology in Australia, (Canberra: Australian Defence Studies Centre, 1999), p. 11. See also ‘Brains wanted for Victory’, 23 August 1915, Geelong Advertiser, p. 3 <http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article130686526>.
Published: 
18 April 2016

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