Brendan:

Okay. Good afternoon everyone, and welcome to today's webinar, what you need to know if your trade mark is challenged. My name is Brendan, and I'm from the Communication team at IP Australia. And before we begin the webinar, I'll just start with a few housekeeping items. You'll find a copy of today's slides and some other useful information available for download from the control panel. We also welcome any questions from you. You can submit your questions at any stage, by using the questions box. However, as we would like to finish right on 1:00 p.m. today, we'll wait until the end of the formal presentation to answer your questions.

 

Brendan:

Okay, now we've got the housekeeping out of the way. I'd like to introduce today's presenter, Natalia Kremenchutskaya. Natalia started out at IP Australia as a trade mark examiner and from there she moved into the oppositions and hearings area, where she has been working as an Assistant Hearing Officer for over a year. I'll hand over to Natalia now and we can get underway.

 

Brendan:

Welcome, Natalia.

 

Natalia:

Hey Brendan, thank you for having me. Hopefully today I can introduce everyone that's listening in to Oppositions and Hearings. So we'll just begin. Okay, so with Oppositions and Hearings, you may not be too familiar with this topic, but basically it's an important topic for everyone. So whether you're considering applying for a trade mark, whether your trade mark registration is currently in the pending or accepted stage, or whether you've had a trade mark registration for a number of years, it's very important to be familiar with the oppositions and hearings side of the story. Having a trade mark registration isn't the end of the journey and so this webinar will hopefully introduce you to some of the topics that we cover in our oppositions and hearings.

 

Natalia:

So, we have a number of different types of oppositions at IP Australia. The ones that I'll be touching on today are to do with oppositions to our registration of a trade mark and also an opposition to the removal or cessation of protection for non-use of a trade mark. So I will touch on these two and I'll go through more information as we go through the slides. And again, at any time if you have any questions, feel free to pop them into the question box.

 

Natalia:

So an opposition to registration of a trade mark is where, say you applied for a trade mark and your trade mark has been accepted by the office, there is a two-month acceptance period where your trade mark will be advertised on our website and any person can then choose to oppose your trade mark registration. So this is where the opposition may start. So what happens is, if you see you're the applicant, you've applied for a trade mark registration, it's been advertised, it's up on our website, anytime within the two-month period any person, any business can choose to then oppose your trade mark.

 

Natalia:

So how do they file an opposition? What they do is, any person can choose to file a notice of intention to oppose. What happens is, we then provide a copy to the party that's applied for the trade mark and the opposition essentially starts. So the opposition to a trade mark consists of the notice of intention to oppose and the statement of grounds and particulars. So I will touch on these notices as we go along, but the main takeaway point from this slide is, if a notice of intention to oppose or statement of grounds and particulars aren't lodged with the office then the trade mark ... Sorry for that, just having technical difficulties at the moment. Okay, so, skipped a few slides I'm just going to go back. So yes, so if a statement of grounds and particulars isn't lodged, basically the trade mark will get registered; however, if a person chooses to lodge a statement of grounds and particulars then the opposition will proceed and that will commence the next stage.

 

Natalia:

So the next stage is the statement of grounds and particulars. What this document is, is it outlines the grounds. So basically the reasons for why someone wants to oppose your trade mark if you do have a trade mark registration. At this stage of the opposition process, we don't usually get any evidence, we don't require any evidence from the parties submitting the statement of grounds and particulars, and it just acts as a general overview of what grounds might be applied within the opposition. So it might be something like a question of ownership, a question of reputation, a question of whether the opponent considers that the trade mark registration has been applied for in bad faith.

 

Natalia:

So there are different topics that this statement of grounds and particulars covers and we do have a copy of the form on the IP Australia website, so you can definitely go online, have a look at our form, have a look at the different grounds. You don't necessarily have to use our form if you don't want to, but it is there as a guideline if you were considering opposing a trade mark or if someone has opposed yours and you'd just like to see what grounds there are that they can choose from.

 

Natalia:

Okay, so, what to do if your trade mark is being opposed? So if you happen to have applied for a trademark registration, it's being accepted but you receive a notice of intention to oppose and a statement of grounds and particulars from a party. The key thing with this is to remember that most correspondence, if not all correspondence, will be coming to e-services. So if we do send you these documents, you will receive them within e-services and basically the main thing is to decide whether you'd like to take action. So if you like to continue to defend your trademark and you want to defend your trade mark, essentially defend your application to the trade mark, then you need to file a notice of intention to defend.

 

Natalia:

So the notice of intention to defend is basically you saying yes, I'd like to pursue my trade mark registration. I will engage in these opposition proceedings. If, as a trade mark applicant, you don't file this form with us then your trade mark will automatically be removed from the register. So essentially it won't proceed to registration. Very, very important just to keep in mind all the deadlines. We do put them in our letters but just important to take note of them and file the correct form when needed. And we do make sure to tell our customers that the notice of intention to defend is due one month from the date of our letter, things like that.

 

Natalia:

So I'm going to just show you a table of the life cycle of the opposition to registration. This is just an overview of what happens. So with an opposition's registration, it's quite a lengthy process. As I've said earlier, the acceptance period for a trade mark is two months. So within two months, anyone can submit a notice of intention to oppose. When we do get a notice of intention to oppose, we give that to both parties and then there is a one month deadline to submit the statement of grounds and particulars. So the opponent has to provide the statement of grounds and particulars within a one month period. This then proceeds onto the notice of intention to defend. So from the statement of grounds and particulars, the applicant or the owner of the application to the trade mark has one month to file the notice of intention to defend. Once we give that to the opponent, the opponent has three months to file evidence and support.

 

Natalia:

So after all this documentation, we move into the evidence stages, and I will touch on the evidence stages in a later slide. But what happens is, there's three months to file evidence and support for the opponent, then the applicant that has filed the trade mark application has three months to provide evidence in answer and then the opponent gets given two months to provide evidence in reply and after the evidence stages have finished, if there are no extensions of time or any additional time that's being used for other things that I'll touch on, then we move onto the hearing or decision on the papers. And again, I'll go into those in more detail as we go along.

 

Natalia:

Okay, so, just going back to this slide. So this is the life cycle of the opposition's registration and now I will move onto the removal of a trade mark for non-use. So the removal of the trade mark for non-use, this is where, say you've had a trade mark registration for five years, anyone can come along essentially and decide to lodge an opposition's registration to remove your trade mark. Not to say that this happens a lot but it's important to be aware that, just because your trademark is registered and even if you've owned it for 10, 20, 50 years, any party with a legal personality or a legal entity, they can come along and they can lodge an opposition to the removal of your trademark with the office.

 

Natalia:

So how to file an opposition against the removal of a trade mark for non-use. So if, for example, you've seen a trade mark on the register, you may believe that for whatever reason you'd like to remove this trade mark, all you need to do is you need to file the document that's called the removal or cessation of protection for non-use application. And then this removal request is advertised for two months. So, similarly with the opposition to registration, we advertise this removal application so that any party can then choose to essentially oppose or defend the trade mark that's up for removal.

 

Natalia:

So what to do if someone has applied to remove your trade mark for non-use. So if you are the owner of a trade mark, in this scenario you become the removal opponent. This is a bit tricky to understand. But basically, the applicant is the person that has put in the form to remove the trade mark and the person that owns the trade mark is the opponent in the scenario. So what you need to do is you need to file a notice of intention to oppose. So what that means is, you are essentially telling the office that you intend to defend your trade mark. As you are the opponent in this instance, you need to file both the notice of intention to oppose and the statement of grounds and particulars.

 

Natalia:

I will touch on the statement of grounds and particulars but it's slightly different to the opposition's registration. So the key note from this slide and very, very important, if someone has opposed, so filed an application to remove your trade mark, and you wish to defend it, you need to file the notice of intention to oppose. If you don't file this form with us within time then your trade mark will be removed.

 

Natalia:

So after this point it's very, very hard to restore your trademark to the registers so it's very important to just be aware of that deadline and check your e-services account because that's where we will send you a letter letting you know that your trademark has been advertised for removal. If you do file your statement of grounds and particulars, then the opposition proceeding begins. So this is where we enter into the statement of grounds and particulars stage and with the statement of grounds and particulars, slightly different to the other one, as the opponent or owner of the trademark, you only need to fill in one section of the statement of grounds and particulars. So I don't have a copy on me to show you but if you do jump onto the IP Australia website, you will notice that on the form that we provide, down the very bottom, there's a part called part 4.

 

Natalia:

Part 4 is where you basically just need to explain to us whether you've used your trademark, whether you intend to use the trademark, for example, things like how many years you've used it for, what you've used it for, what kind of goods and services your trademark has been used on in the market. So it doesn't have to be very lengthy. We don't require evidence at this stage but we do just need to have an overview of, if you've used your trademark and this is what you've used it on or this is what you've intended to use it on. So it's a lot shorter but it's the same form.

 

Natalia:

And now I will just go through, as with the opposition to registration of a trademark, I'll show you the lifecycle of an opposition to removal of a trademark for non-use. So again, the process is very lengthy and it's just important to note that if you do miss any deadlines, they are options for applying for an extension of time but it is a lengthy process. So again, if someone applies to remove your trademark or if you've applied to remove someone else's trademark, this is advertised for two months. So within the two months, anyone or any party can submit a notice of intention to oppose to the office. Once this is processed, we will send out a letter saying that the statement of grounds and particulars is now due.

 

Natalia:

This will be due within one month. Within one month of then receiving the statement of grounds and particulars, the opponent, so the opponent in this case the owner of the trademark, has to lodge the notice of intention to oppose and the statement of grounds and particulars and then the applicant, so the person who put in the application to remove the trademark, has to decide whether they want to defend that.

 

Natalia:

So if they've made the decision that yes, they do want to defend the opposition, they will lodge a notice of intention to defend. Once the notice of intention to defend is given to both parties, this starts the evidence stages. So similarly to the other type of opposition, we have evidence in support. So this is where, in this instance, the owner of the trademark has three months to provide any evidence to show us that yes, they've used their trademark or they wish to use their trademark. Once the three months deadline is over the evidence in answer stage begins. So this is where the applicant, so the person that's applied to remove the trademark, gets their three months to give us all the evidence as to why the trademark should be removed and then the opponent or the owner of the trademark will have two months to reply.

 

Natalia:

Once the evidence stages are complete, we then go to the hearing or the decision on the papers. So that will be a choice for both parties to decide, if it does get to that stage.

 

Natalia:

That's a bit of an overview of the cycle of both the opposition proceeding types and I will just touch on evidence.

 

Natalia:

So again with the evidence stages, as I just did the overview, we always have, regardless of the opposition type, we always have evidence in support, evidence in answer and evidence in reply. So the evidence in support is the opportunity for the opponent, regardless of the type of opposition, the opponent gets to submit their evidence and it's a three month period. Then the applicant gets to submit their evidence in answer, which is again a three month period. And we finish off with a two month period for any replies. So the opponent gets to then reply to the evidence in answer if they want to. They don't necessarily have to but the option is there.

 

Natalia:

Important considerations for supplying evidence. One of the most important things with evidence is to know that everything must be submitted in declaration form. So we do have a copy of a declaration form on the IP Australia website and you can use that form or you can choose to use your own. It does not have to be a statutory declaration but it does still need to be in declaration form. What some people may not know is that whilst the majority of the documents that are submitted to us at IP Australia get submitted through e-services or online services, with evidence we actually use a platform called Objective Connect. So Objective Connect is just a different portal that any type of evidence within an opposition proceeding gets uploaded to that portal and then the parties involved in that opposition proceeding will be given login details to access that evidence.

 

Natalia:

So if you do enter into an opposition proceeding, at some point down the track you will be sent an invite from Objective Connect giving you instructions to log on, upload your evidence or look at any evidence that is available within the folders. And the very last thing, and probably the most important thing to remember with evidence, is that it is subject to strict time frames. So whilst you do get a three month window or a two month window to submit your evidence, if you miss that deadline it is very, very hard to then get your evidence in. So there are options for an extension of time and I will touch on that but it is very, very important to just keep in mind what your deadlines are and just when the due dates are to submit or upload that evidence, and take into account that there may be, you know, sometimes technical difficulties with uploading things onto Objective Connect or e-services.

 

Natalia:

So I will just go through Objective Connect. So, as I've said, you get an invite to join Objective Connect. We create what's called a workspace. So the workspace will have all the folders for evidence in support, evidence in answer, evidence in reply. Also important to note there's no fees to use Objective Connect so we just create the workspace for you and all evidence needs to uploaded here. We do not accept evidence through e-services or online services so if you happen to upload your evidence through e-services, we will be contacting you to let you know that you'll need to just re-upload that through Objective Connect.

 

Natalia:

So I'm going to move on to extensions of time. As I've said, even though we have really strict deadlines for evidence, if you do happen to miss the deadline it's not the end of the world. It is really hard to get an extension of time but the option is there. So if you happen to miss your deadline, there's a form on our website for an extension of time. With extensions of time, in the sense of evidence, there are two grounds that you can apply for.

 

Natalia:

So the first one is, you have made all reasonable efforts to comply with filing requirements and you have acted promptly and diligently at all times. So what that means is if, for example, you have your three month period for filing evidence, you spent all those three months compiling your evidence, organizing everything that you needed to do, you have a timeline that you can show us where you've gone, yeah, here's a breakdown of every little thing that you've done within the three month period. Everything's happened according to plan and then for whatever reason you've come to the deadline and something's gone wrong. So whether you missed an opportunity to file or e-services has gone down or you didn't write down the correct due date, then this is where you would very likely select this ground. So you just have to show us what it is that you did to try and submit all your evidence on time but you missed the deadline.

 

Natalia:

Alternatively, we have an option for exceptional circumstances. So this is where, say for example, a natural disaster occurs. So at the moment, how we're experiencing the bush fires. So if you weren't able to, for example, submit your evidence due to some exceptional circumstance, you would use this ground to apply for an extension of time.

 

Natalia:

So with extensions of time, any parties, so either party in the opposition proceeding can apply for it. There is a fee that applies to extension requests, so it is very important to note that with extensions of time you do need to pay a fee. If you are applying for one month, it is $150, and for any additional month it is $150 on top of that. So, with extensions of time, if you do apply for it there is no guarantee that it will be granted. You do need to give us a genuine reason for the request. Sometimes the reasons that we receive are revolved around party negotiations. Party negotiations are not a valid reason. So even if you are negotiating with the party, it is very important that you don't miss your deadline for filing evidence because we will not accept that as a reason for your extension of time. However, if you do have a genuine reason that has to do with either being prompt and diligent or you have an exceptional circumstance, then we will definitely assess your application and let you know whether we will grant that application.

 

Natalia:

What that means is if we don't grant your application, then you will miss that evidence stage. So say it's evidence in support, if we don't grant your extension of time then you won't have any evidence filed. But if we do grant it then you will get the extension of one month or two months or however many months you apply for.

 

Natalia:

The other thing I'd like to touch on is cooling-off periods. So where I said that with extensions of time we don't accept the option of party negotiations, party negotiations fall into cooling-off periods. So say a party has opposed your trademark and you started negotiating with them. If you decide that you need more time or you want to essentially pause the opposition proceeding, then you or the other party can apply for a cooling-off period. Now it's important to note that there is only one cooling-off period per opposition. So whilst either party can apply, it needs to be signed and agreed upon by both parties and then the cooling-off period will commence for six months. So at any point within that six month period, either party can request to terminate the cooling-off period. So if you are negotiating or planning to negotiate with a party, just make sure that both of you agree to the cooling-off period and we get that into the office.

 

Natalia:

Okay, so once the evidence stages are finished, everyone has submitted everything, we've gone through any potential extensions of time or cooling-off periods, we come to the hearing or decision on the papers. So this is where both parties will be given an opportunity to request a hearing.

 

Natalia:

And we move on to hearings. So right at the end once everything wraps up, we get to the hearings stage. What is a hearing? So both parties are given the opportunity to be heard. In terms of what we do at IP Australia, we send out letters to both parties, we give them time to either request a hearing as an oral hearing or request just a decision to be made. So with all the evidence submitted, a hearing officer will then look at all the evidence and make a decision if that's the option that the parties have gone for. Alternatively, if one party has requested a hearing then the other party will be notified, whether they want to participate or not. With hearings, the parties will then need to also provide submissions.

 

Natalia:

So what do you include in your submissions? Submissions need to be relevant to the evidence and they need to be relevant to the law. So depending on the type of evidence that you've given us, your submissions are basically a summary and a supporting argument for your evidence. So your evidence states the facts and then your submissions are those argument points that support your evidence. Your submissions are not an opportunity to provide new evidence. So the important thing to take away from this is when the hearing officer requests for submissions from your or the other party, you will not be given an opportunity to provide new information. All the information that you wish to provide needs to be provided within the evidence stages of the opposition.

 

Natalia:

If you do get to the stage of attending a hearing, so if a party has requested an oral hearing, the hearing officer will schedule a date and then on that day you can either attend in person, attend via video conference or attend via teleconference. So you can choose to have the hearing either located in Canberra or any other city around Australia. So just important to note that you do have different options and it's up to you whether you do want to have a face-to-face or you'd like to do it over the phone or via teleconference.

 

Natalia:

At the hearing, so if you do attend a hearing this is what happens. So the hearing officer will commence the hearing. They will introduce both parties, they will introduce just general information about what's going to happen and the running order of the day. So essentially the opponent presents their oral submissions first. The opponent will go through all of that information, all of their submissions and then the hearing officer will pass it onto the applicant. The applicant will then have their opportunity to present their submissions and then both parties will be given an opportunity for rebuttals, so essentially any other comments that they wish to add. And then finally, the hearing officer will conclude the hearing.

 

Natalia:

So at the hearing you don't actually get a decision on, or the outcome of the hearing. The hearing officer will then collect all the information, all the evidence, everything that happened at the hearing, and they will write a decision. So they have approximately 91 days to write their decision. That means that you are not likely to hear from IP Australia or the hearing officer for a period of about three months, depending on office closures, public holidays, things like that. And what happens is, once the decision is written you will be provided with a copy. So both parties are provided with a copy of the decision and each party has the opportunity to file a court appeal. 21 days are given to file a court appeal if you aren't happy with the outcome of the decision.

 

Natalia:

The decision is also published so everyone, any party and any person, has access to the public decision. There is an opportunity to contact the hearing officer and it's definitely very important to contact them if, for example, you've negotiated between both parties and there's a successful outcome, whether you wish to not go ahead with hearing or you want to defer the hearing and whether the parties have filed a joint request for cooling-off period. So if there's generally any reason where you decided I don't want to go ahead with the hearing or we've negotiated or we want to withdraw the opposition proceedings, it is very important to inform the office and inform the hearing officer.

 

Natalia:

Okay, so I'll just do a final wrap up. So with opposition proceedings, the key takeaway points to remember, whether you're engaged in an opposition proceeding or not, so whether there is currently one going on or whether you just have a trade mark registration, it is very, very important to keep checking your e-services regularly. What happens is, a lot of people will register their trade mark and then not check their e-services account. But in the meantime, someone has filed an opposition against their trade mark and they may just miss that letter completely. We do send out email notifications, but we'll only send one or two and they may go into your spam folder. So very, very important to make sure you check your e-services account. If you do find yourself in an opposition proceeding, it may be worth considering seeking legal advice as trade mark attorneys will be able to go through the entire process with you, help you out with any, for example, filing the statement of grounds and particulars, any of the legal documents and any additional information where you need advice from the opposition. It's just worth to maybe consider talking to someone within the legal profession.

 

Natalia:

But at the end of the day, we're here to help. So if you contact IP Australia, you may end up speaking to myself, so I’m an Assistant Hearing Officer. If you have any questions to do with evidence or the different notices that we have, give us a call, we're here to help. We can definitely guide you throughout. We can't offer advice but in relation to the forms and any evidence and things like that, the e-services, we can definitely talk you through it. Particularly, if you do have any questions, call us before your deadline because we can definitely help with that a bit but once the deadline is passed, it's a lot trickier and harder for us to try and reverse that deadline.

 

Natalia:

So give us a call, check your e-services. And I will just go through, very quickly, so there are ... One of the things to know is with opposition proceedings, if you do engage in them, there are fees involved. These fees range depending on what it is that has been applied for. So, for example, if a party lodges a notice of intention to oppose you can see that there's a $250 fee involved. If you choose to apply for an extension of time, again, $150 per month, per trade mark. So there are different fees. They are available on our website. It's worth just to have a look at them. These are the fees just for IP Australia so they do not factor in if you do want to engage, for example, a trade mark attorney.

 

Natalia:

And on that note, if you do wish to engage with a trade mark attorney, they can be very useful if you're not sure about any of our documents, any of our processes. If you want to understand the relevant legislation or, for example, what grounds to choose in your statement of grounds and particulars, we can't give you advice on choosing any grounds but you can talk to a trade mark attorney if you do want to have a bit of assistance, have some advice. Very, very or even more important during the evidence stages I should say just because as the opposition continues on, it does become more technical. So it is a very technical process and trade mark attorneys can be very helpful when it comes to a hearing.

 

Natalia:

So even though you can represent yourself, it is a very tricky and complicated process so it's just something to note if you do happen to find yourself in an opposition. And yeah, as I said before, if you're not sure give us a call. If you have any questions, we're here to help. We're happy to chat to you. Yeah, there's our customer service number so, yeah, that's the end of the presentation and if anyone has any questions feel free to send them through. Happy to answer them or via email we'll chat.

 

Brendan:

Great, thanks Natalia. So yeah, as Natalia mentioned it's the time that we've allocated now for any questions that you may have. So if you haven't asked a question yet but you want to, please ask it now in the questions box. We're going to take a few minutes just to review the questions that have come through and we'll be back shortly.

 

Natalia:

Hi there, so we've had a couple of questions come through and again in the meantime if you can think of anything, send it through to us.

 

Natalia:

So the first question is, how do I access my e-services account? So very important to jump onto our website, right at the top of our website there's a link to online services. If you click on that link it will take you to our e-services platform. You will need to have your details so if you've registered for e-services before, then this is the information that you use to, for example, get your trade mark application. So if you've lodged a trade mark application with, this will be your username and your password that you've used for that and that will get you into your e-services account. If you are having difficulties accessing your account, give us a call on our customer service line and they'll be able to guide you through accessing your e-services account. If you don't currently have one, there are prompts to get you registered for e-services. So either which way, jump on our website or give us a call and we'll be able to guide you through that.

 

Natalia:

The other question that's just come through, this is related to oppositions and hearings. Can a third party oppose a non-use removal? The answer is yes. So simply put, any party can oppose a non-use removal. It just so happens that most of the time it's the trade mark owner that would want to defend their trade mark but any party can submit an opposition to defend the trade mark. So again, if there are any more questions, feel free to send them through now. It is very technical information that I've gone through, so if there's anything to do statement of grounds and particulars or any forms on our website, send them through or give us a call. Yeah, we're happy to help.

 

Brendan:

Great. Thanks Natalia and thanks everyone for attending today's webinar. So ...

 

Natalia:

Oh, we have had just a couple more come through. Sorry about that.

 

Brendan:

It's okay.

 

Natalia:

So can one use a common law trade mark as a ground for oppositions? So that's a very good question. So if you do have a common law trade mark, so you have a business, you've it for, for example, 10 years or 15 years, but you've never registered a trade mark, you can use that as a ground of opposition. So some of the grounds that we have include ownership and include common law as a ground. So most definitely if you feel that someone has registered a trade mark and it's identical, very similar to yours then you can definitely use that as a ground. So common law is covered in Section 60 of the Trade Marks Act which is a bit more technical and also Section 58. But give us a call if you're not sure because there are different grounds that we cover.

 

Natalia:

And then another question that's just come through is someone's asked what is defined as non-use. So again, very good question. Non-use refers to, for example, someone may have registered a trade mark 10 years ago and maybe at that time they used it for a couple years but then they decided, for whatever reason, for their business decisions they weren't going to use it anymore or maybe they haven't been using it on the goods and services that they've applied for. So any party can come in and submit an application for non-use and they're basically saying that they believe that you as the trade mark owner have not been using your trade mark on the goods and services that you've applied for. And then as the trade mark owner, it is then up to you to tell us or tell IP Australia and then also the person that's applied to remove your trade mark have you used it, have you intended to use your trade mark? And just explain to us how and why and all those details.

 

Natalia:

So just to recap, non-use means you haven't been using your trade mark or the trade mark hasn't been used on the goods and services that is registered for.

 

Natalia:

Okay, yes so if anyone has any more questions, or you can think of something let us know. Otherwise, I think we'll just close it up then.

 

Brendan:

Yeah, so thank you Natalia and thanks everyone for attending. As you mentioned, if you have any further questions after this session, just get in touch with us. All our contact details are on this slide. Also at the end of this session, you'll receive a short feedback survey and we'd really appreciate if you could take a few minutes to fill it out and let us know how we went. This will help us to improve our webinars in the future.

 

Brendan:

But for now, thanks again for attending today and have a wonderful afternoon. 

Last updated: 
Friday, December 6, 2019